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214                 "GIANTS' BONES*' IN PATAGONIA                 CHAP.

the formula is the  same  as in Typotherium.     The   animal  seems

to have had nails rather than hoofs. The thumb was opposable.
The fibula is fused below with the tibia, whereas in the last
genus these two bones are quite separate from each other.

SITE-ORDER  5.     TOXODONTIA
The group Toxodontia,1 like so many others, is exceedingly
hard to define. úTor are its - limits any easier to mark out than
many others of the groups of Ungulates. It will be best perhaps
to give an account of Toxodon, and of a few types which seem to
lie near it in the system, and then to indicate how far they
resemble or depart in structure from other Ungulates. Too&odon
itself is known from complete skeletons. It lived in Argentina
during the " Pampean " period, which seems to be of the Pleistocene
age. A large number of species, however, have been described, some
of which seem to go farther back in time, and to have existed
during the Miocene period further south in Patagonia.
The size of this creature was about that of a large Rhinoceros;
it has a bulky body and a large head, which was borne low
down, on account of the bending downwards of the anterior
vertebrae; in this aspect the figures of the skeletons recall
Gttyptodon and similar Edentates. The beast was discovered by
Darwin, and originally described by Owen. ** During his (Mr.
Darwin's) sojourn in Banda Oriental," writes the Rev. H.
Hutchinson, " having heard of some c giants* bones * at a farm-
house on the Sarandis, a small stream entering the Rio USTegro,
he rode there, and purchased for the sum of eighteenpence the
skull which has been described by Sir R. Owen. The people at
the farm-house told Mr. Darwin that the remains were exposed
by a flood having washed down part of a bank of earth. When
found, the head was quite perfect, but the boys knocked the teeth
out with stones, and then set up the head as a mark to throw
at." The whole of the Pampean area is a valley of dry bones,
and the remains of Toxodon are abundant there. The skull of
To&odon is not unlike that of a horse in general aspect; but the
orbit is not separated from the temporal fossa. The premaxillae
aiJe famished above with a slight protuberance directed towards
1 Cope, American Naturalist, xxxt 1897, p. 485.